The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) states that mental problems are fairly common inside the United states of america. The institution estimates that within a provided year, you can find 26.two percent of yankee grown ups, or about 1 in four adults, which might be diagnosed with a psychological disorder.
Even though mental disorders are found in a significant number of the population, the main burden of illness is concentrated in a much smaller proportion as about 6 percent, or 1 in 17, suffer from a serious mental illness.
Many people suffer from more than one mental disorder at a given time. Nearly half, or about 45 percent, of those with any mental disorder are diagnosed to have 2 or more disorders at the same time.
In the U.S., mental disorders are diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), created by the American Psychiatric Association, to classify psychiatric disorders to aid Psychiatrists in their diagnoses. The top 10 most common disorders, according to the NIMH are classified below.
1.) Mood Disorders – It is estimated that 20.9 million American adults have a mood disorder. The median age for people with this illness is 30 and it usually occurs with anxiety disorders and substance abuse. Mood disorders include:
Major Depressive Disorder -This illness is more prevalent in women than in men and affects approximately 14.8 million American adults in a given year and is the leading cause of disability for people aged 15-44. This illness can develop at any age but the median age at onset is 32.
Dysthymic Disorder – This illness is associated with chronic depression and must be present for at least two years in adults, or one year for children, to meet criteria for diagnosis. The median age for this illness is 31 and affects 3.3 million American adults in a given year.
Bipolar Disorder – The illness affects approximately 5.7 million American adults in a year and the median age of onset for this disorder is 25 years old.
Suicidal tendencies – This is usually the result of a depressive or a substance abuse disorder. Men die committing suicide four times as much as women but women attempt suicide two to three times as often as men.
2.) Schizophrenia – About 2.4 million American adults are diagnosed with schizophrenia in a given year and is found in men and women equally. However, this illness appears in men in their late teens or early twenties while women are affected in their twenties or early thirties.
3.) Anxiety Disorders – This illness includes panic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, post-traumatic stress disorders, generalized anxiety disorders and phobias. Approximately 40 million American adults are diagnosed with this illness in a given year. This disorder frequently co-occurs with depressive disorders or substance abuse and most people who have an anxiety disorder will almost surely have another anxiety disorder. By age 21.5, nearly three-quarters of those diagnosed with this disorder will have their first episode.
Panic Disorder – found in approximately 6 million American adults. Typically develops in early adulthood with the median age of onset at 24, but may extend throughout adulthood. About one in three people with this illness develops agoraphobia, a condition in which the individual becomes afraid of being in any place or situation where escape might be difficult or help unavailable in the event of a panic attack.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) – diagnosed in 2.2 million American adults yearly. The first symptoms of this illness often begin during childhood or adolescence but the median age of onset is 19.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) – this disorder frequently occurs after personal assaults and approximately 7.7 million American adults have PTSD and this illness may develop at any age, including childhood, but the median age of onset is 23.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) – affects 6.8 million American adults in a given year and can begin across the life cycle, with the median age of onset at 31.
Social Phobia – begins in childhood or adolescence, typically around the age of 13 and is found in approximately 15 million American adults.
Agoraphobia – involves intense fear and anxiety of any place or situation where escape might be difficult, leading to avoidance of situations such as being alone outside of the house; travelling in a vehicle or generally being in a crowded area. Approximately 1.8 million American adults are affected without even a history of panic disorder. The median age of onset of this illness is at 20 years of age.
Specific Phobia – involves persistent fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation. Diagnosed in approximately 19.2 million American adults in a given year and typically begins in childhood; with the median age of onset at 7.
4.) Eating Disorders – The three main types of eating disorders are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. Women are much more likely than men to develop this disorder. With only an estimated 5 to 15 percent of people with anorexia or bulimia and an estimated 35 percent of those with binge-eating disorder being men.
In their lifetime, an estimated 0.5 percent to 3.7 percent of females suffer from anorexia, and an estimated 1.1 percent to 4.2 percent suffer from bulimia. Community surveys conducted by the NIMH have estimated that between 2 percent and 5 percent of Americans experience binge-eating disorder in a 6-month period. The mortality rate among people with anorexia has been estimated at 0.56 percent per year, or approximately 5.6 percent per decade, which is about 12 times higher than the annual death rate due to all causes of death among females ages 15-24 in the general population.
5.) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) – one of the most common mental disorders in children and adolescents, also affects an estimated 4.1 percent of adults in a given year. This illness usually becomes evident during preschool or early elementary years. The median age of onset of ADHD is 7, although the disorder can persist into adolescence and occasionally into adulthood.
6.) Autism – this is part of a group of disorders called autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), also known as pervasive developmental disorders. ASDs range in severity, with autism being the most debilitating form while other disorders, such as Asperger syndrome, produce milder symptoms. Estimating the prevalence of autism is difficult and controversial due to differences in the ways that cases are identified and defined, differences in study methods, and changes in diagnostic criteria. A recent study reported the prevalence of autism in 3-10 year-olds to be about 3.4 cases per 1000 children. These illnesses develop in childhood and generally are diagnosed by age three. Autism is about four times more common in boys than girls. Girls with the disorder, however, tend to have more severe symptoms and greater cognitive impairment.
7.) Alzheimer’s Disease – affects an estimated 4.5 million Americans. The number of Americans with AD has more than doubled since 1980 and this illness is the most common cause of dementia among people aged 65 and older. Increasing age is the greatest risk factor for this illness. In most people diagnosed with this, symptoms first appear after age 65. One in 10 individuals over 65 and nearly half of those over 85 are affected. However, rare, inherited forms of Alzheimer’s disease can also strike individuals as early as their 30s and 40s. From the time of diagnosis, people with this disorder survive about half as long as those of similar age without dementia.
8.) Sexual Disorders – usually involve hypoactive and hyperactive sexual tendencies which can lead to impulses involving the genital organs. The APA is currently studying the different disorders for classification but unusual instances with patients pointing to their sexual tendencies that led them to such incidents are generally associated with sexual disorders.
9.) Gender and Identity Issues – controversial disorder pertaining to patients performing actions contrary to what is expected of their biological nature. These so-called illnesses are still undergoing studies by the APA to explain why people attempt extreme situations to change their biological character.
10.) Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) – frequently happens during the fall and winter months when symptoms of depression can appear or come all at once. Other symptoms include fatigue, lack of interest in normal activities, social withdrawal, craving of foods high in carbohydrates and weight gain. People typically affected with this disorder tend to stay inside buildings for long hours, and is often diagnosed alongside an illness called cabin fever, where people get restless and fatigued while staying indoors for long hours. SAD has been linked to a biochemical imbalance in the brain prompted by shorter daylight and a lack of sunlight in winter.